rTMS of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Reduces Nicotine Cue Craving
Xingbao Li, Karen J. Hartwell, Max Owens, Todd LeMatty, Jeffrey J. Borckardt, Colleen A. Hanlon, Kathleen T. Brady, Mark S. George
Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can noninvasively stimulate the brain and transiently amplify or block behaviors mediated through a region. We hypothesized that a single high-frequency rTMS session over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would reduce cue craving for cigarettes compared with a sham TMS session.
Methods Sixteen non-treatment-seeking, nicotine-dependent participants were randomized to receive either real high-frequency rTMS (10 Hz, 100% resting motor threshold, 5-sec on, 10-sec off for 15 min; 3000 pulses) or active sham (eSham) TMS over the DLPFC in two visits with 1 week between visits. The participants received cue exposure before and after rTMS and rated their craving after each block of cue presentation.
Results Stimulation of the left DLFPC with real, but not sham, rTMS reduced craving significantly from baseline (64.1±5.9 vs. 45.7±6.4, t = 2.69, p = .018). When compared with neutral cue craving, the effect of real TMS on cue craving was significantly greater than the effect of sham TMS (12.5±10.4 vs. –9.1±10.4; t = 2.07, p = .049). More decreases in subjective craving induced by TMS correlated positively with higher Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score (r = .58, p = .031) and more cigarettes smoked per day (r = .57, p = .035).
Conclusions One session of high-frequency rTMS (10 Hz) of the left DLPFC significantly reduced subjective craving induced by smoking cues in nicotine-dependent participants. Additional studies are needed to explore rTMS as an aid to smoking cessation.
Posted to Members in the News & Publications on March 04, 2013